I know that recommending a book I have not yet read should be avoided but think that this book might be a worthwhile exception. At a time when there are ideas ranging from the sensibly cautious to the outright idiotic about the Covid Vaccine,  You Bet Your Life: From Blood Transfusions to Mass Vaccination, the Long and Risky History of Medical Innovation by Paul A Offit traverses the history of many medical advancements.
The book contains a really interesting section on the development of the polio vaccine, including a testing regime that would be totally unacceptable today and included the inventor testing it on his own family prior to it being released. 
Every medical decision—whether to have chemotherapy, an X-ray, or surgery—is a risk, no matter which way you choose. The author argues that, from the first blood transfusions four hundred years ago to the hunt for a COVID-19 vaccine, risk has been essential to the discovery of new treatments. More importantly, understanding the risks is crucial to whether, as a society or as individuals, we accept them.